Meta Model, IDs, and UIDs
Explaining the ObjectBox meta model file and how to resolve model file conflicts.
Unlike relational databases like SQLite, ObjectBox does not require you to create a database schema. That does not mean ObjectBox is schema-less. For efficiency reasons, ObjectBox manages a meta model of the data stored. This meta model is actually ObjectBox’s equivalent of a schema. It includes known object types including all properties, indexes, etc. A key difference to relational schemas is that ObjectBox tries to manage its meta model automatically. In some cases it needs your help. That’s why we will look at some details.
In the ObjectBox meta model, everything has an ID and a UID. IDs are used internally in ObjectBox to reference entities, properties, and indexes. For example, you have an entity “User” with the properties “id” and “name”. In the meta model the entity (type) could have the ID 42, and the properties the IDs 1 and 2. Property IDs must only be unique within their entity.
Note: do not confuse object IDs with meta model IDs: object IDs are the values of the @Id property (see Object IDs in basics). In contrast, all objects are instances of the entity type associated with a single meta model ID.
ObjectBox assigns meta model IDs sequentially (1, 2, 3, 4, …) and keeps track of the last used ID to prevent ID collisions.
As a rule of thumb, for each meta model ID there’s a corresponding UID. They complement IDs and are often used in combination (e.g. in the JSON file). While IDs are assigned sequentially, UIDs are a random long value. The job of UIDs is detecting and resolving concurrent modifications of the meta model.
A UID is unique across entities, properties, indexes, etc. Thus unlike IDs, an UID already used for an entity may not be used for a property. As a precaution to avoid side effects, ObjectBox keeps track of “retired” UIDs to ensure previously used but now abandoned UIDs are not used for new artifacts.
ObjectBox stores a part of its meta model in a JSON file. This file should be available to every developer and thus checked into a source version control system (e.g. git). The main purpose of this JSON file is to ensure consistent IDs and UIDs in the meta model across devices.
This JSON file is stored in
objectbox-models/default.jsonfor Android or Java projects,
lib/objectbox-model.jsonfor Dart or Flutter projects.
"_note1": "KEEP THIS FILE! Check it into a version control system (VCS) like git.",
"_note2": "ObjectBox manages crucial IDs for your object model. See docs for details.",
"_note3": "If you have VCS merge conflicts, you must resolve them according to ObjectBox docs.",
As you can see, the “id” attributes combine the ID and UID using a colon. This protects against faulty merges. When applying the meta model to the database, ObjectBox will check for consistent IDs and UIDs.
At build time, ObjectBox gathers meta model information from the entities (@Entity classes) and the JSON file. The complete meta model information is written into the generated class
Then, at runtime, the meta model assembled in MyObjectBox is synchronized with the meta model inside the ObjectBox database (file). UIDs are the primary keys to synchronize the meta model with the database. The synchronization involves a couple of consistency checks that may fail when you try to apply illegal meta data.
At some point you may want to rename an entity class or just a property. Without further information, ObjectBox will remove the old entity/property and add a new one with the new name. This is actually a valid scenario by itself: removing one property and adding another. To tell ObjectBox it should do a rename instead, you need to supply the property's previous UID.
@Uidannotation without any value to the entity or property you want to rename and trigger a project build. The build will fail with a message containing the UID you need to apply to the
In the section on UIDs, we already hinted at the possibility of meta model conflicts. This means the meta model defined in the
objectbox-models/default.jsonfile conflicts with the model of the existing database file.
When creating a Store the meta model is passed and verified against the database file. If a conflict exists an exception or error is thrown, for example:
// If lastEntityId in the model file is incorrect:
DB's last entity ID 4 is higher than 3 from model
// If the UID of an entity in the model file has changed:
Incoming entity ID 1:6645479796472661392 does not match existing UID 8096888707432154961
Such a conflict can be caused by
- developers changing the meta model at the same time (e.g. in different version control system branches), typically by adding entity classes or properties.
objectbox-models/default.jsonmodel file getting accidentally deleted, it is then generated on the next build with a new set of UIDs.
- a database file with a different model getting restored by Android Auto Backup or getting supplied as the initial database file.
There are basically two ways to resolve this:
- Resolve conflicts in or reconstruct the
default.jsonmeta model file to match the model of an existing database file.
- Keep or create a fresh
default.jsonmodel file and delete the database file. However, this will lose all existing data.
The two options are explained in detail below.
Usually, it is preferred to edit the JSON file to resolve conflicts and fix the meta model. This involves the following steps:
- Ensure IDs are unique: in the JSON file the id attribute has values in the format “ID:UID”. If you have duplicate IDs after a VCS merge, you should assign a new ID (keep the UID part!) to one of the two. Typically, the new ID would be “last used ID + 1”.
- Update last ID values: for entities, update the attribute
lastEntityId; for properties, update the attribute
lastPropertyIdof the enclosing entity back to the ID:UID with the ID indicated by the error message.
- Check for other ID references: do a text search for the UID and check if the ID part is correct for all UID occurrences
To illustrate this with an example, let's assume the last assigned entity ID was 41. Thus the next entity ID will be 42. Now, the developers Alice and Bob add a new entity without knowing of each other. Alice adds a new entity “Ant” which is assigned the entity ID 42. At the same time, Bob adds the entity “Bear” which is also assigned the ID 42. After both developers committed their code, the ID 42 does not unique identify an entity type (“Ant” or “Bear”?). Furthermore, in Alice’s ObjectBox the entity ID 42 is already wired to “Ant” while Bob’s ObjectBox maps 42 to “Bear”. UIDs make this situation resolvable. Let’s say the UID is 12345 for “Ant” and 9876 for “Bear”. Now, when Bob pulls Alice’s changes, he is able to resolve the conflict. He manually assigns the entity ID 43 to “Bear” and updates the lastEntityId attribute accordingly to “43:9876” (ID:UID). After Bob commits his changes, both developers are able to continue with their ObjectBox files.
During initial development, it may be an option to just delete the meta model and all databases. This will cause a fresh start for the meta model, e.g. all UIDs will be regenerated. Follow these steps:
- Delete the JSON file (objectbox-models/default.json)
- Build the project to generate a new JSON file from scratch
- Commit the recreated JSON file to your VCS (e.g. git)
- Delete all previously created ObjectBox databases (e.g. for Android, delete the app’s data or uninstall the app)
While this is a simple approach, it has its obvious disadvantages. For example for a published app, all existing data would be lost.